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川普为什么爱用这7种表情?

作者: 孝感翻译公司  发布时间:2017-05-24 17:17:48  点击率:

特朗普的面部表情和肢体语言是出了名的做作夸张,演讲台上的他堪称移动的表情包。近日,《卫报》总结了特朗普最具有代表性的7种面部表情,并且从心理学的角度分析了这些表情的背后意义以及它们如何帮助特朗普吸引眼球。一起来看看表情帝特朗普的心理学战术吧。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

川普为什么爱用这7种表情?

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

A great deal of Donald Trump's political success can be put down to his body language and the unusual ways he uses his face. The first thing we notice about Trump's facial expressions is the sheer variety. The second is their dramatic, often over-stated character. This was evident before and during the presidential election. But what are Trump's signature facial expressions, and what do they tell us about him?lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
特朗普的政治成功很大程度上可以归功于其肢体语言和与众不同的面部表情。首先,我们发现他的面部表情非常丰富。其次,这些面部表情都很做作夸张。这一点在大选前和大选期间都非常明显。但是特朗普最有特色的面部表情是什么?你知道这些表情向我们透露什么?lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

1. Alpha facelxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
阿尔法表情
lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

川普为什么爱用这7种表情?

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

During the campaign, Trump eclipsed Clinton in the macho stakes. He did this by adopting an "alpha face" of lowered brows, narrowed eyes and a firmly set mouth. This expression is the antithesis of submissiveness. Psychologists have discovered that smiling men are widely perceived as less dominant and that powerful men show reduced levels of smiling. Individuals who want to demonstrate that they are not a threat are more likely to raise their eyebrows, widen their eyes and flash a smile – the precise opposite of what Trump does in this effort to remind everyone that he is not the kind of guy you can push around.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
论气势,特朗普在竞选过中盖过了希拉里。他压低眉毛、眯起眼睛、嘴角僵硬,用盛气凌人的“阿尔法表情”压制了希拉里。心理学家发现,人们普遍认为爱笑的男性没那么强势,而有权有势的男性较少微笑。当人们想表示自己不具有威胁时,会挑起眉毛,睁大眼睛,露出微笑——特朗普所做的恰恰相反,这是为了提醒所有人他不是那种任人摆布的人。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

2. Angry facelxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
愤怒的表情
lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

川普为什么爱用这7种表情?

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

Most politicians, when they are angry, will allow themselves a modicum of indignation. That's not enough for Trump. When he's incensed, he pulls out all the stops and produces a larger-than-life spectacle of fury - eyes narrowed, brows tightly knitted together, mouth open and jaw tense. It is tempting to think that Trump's outbursts come from a lack of inhibition, but their true source is more likely to be his realisation that exhibitions of anger reinforce an impression of dominance. This is certainly in line with research by psychologists, which shows that people with a strong sense of entitlement, or who see themselves as powerful and unchallenged, are more ready to engage in public displays of anger than others.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
大部分政客在生气时会表现出些许愤慨。但特朗普不满足于此。当他被激怒时,他会眯眼皱眉、大张嘴巴、绷紧下巴,使尽浑身解数做出极其夸张的愤怒表情。人们很容易认为特朗普发火是因为缺乏自制力,但真正的原因很可能是他知道表现愤怒会深化他的强势形象。这点与心理学家的研究相吻合,研究发现一个权利意识很强的人、或者认为自己有权有势、无可匹敌的人比其他人更容易在公众面前表现愤怒。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

3. Chin-jutlxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
下颌微抬
lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

川普为什么爱用这7种表情?

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

One of the ways that Trump tries to look like a tough politician is by jutting out his chin. The chin-jut relies on the fact that men with bigger chins have higher levels of testosterone and, partly for this reason, are more likely to reach positions of power. In a study at West Point military academy in the US, for example, it was discovered that male cadets who had larger chins were more likely to reach the rank of general in later life than their small-chinned peers. By using the chin-jut, Trump is taking full advantage of this fact – tilting his head back, thrusting out his lower jaw and attempting to give the impression that he deserves to be in charge.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
特朗普试图让自己看起来像一位强势政治家的方法之一是微抬下巴。这是因为下颌大的男性睾丸素含量更高,在一定程度上,这样的男人更有可能获得权力。比如,美国西点军事学院的一项研究发现,与下巴小的同伴相比,下颌较大的学员日后更有可能获得上将军衔。特朗普充分利用了这点——他向后仰头,微抬下巴,试图给人一种应该由他做主的印象。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

4. Big smilelxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
灿烂的笑容
lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

川普为什么爱用这7种表情?

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

Although Trump instinctively recognises the demeaning potential of smiling, there are occasions when he is prepared to throw caution to the wind and give a full-blown smile, with his teeth on display and wrinkles around the corners of the eyes - the latter being the feature that defines a genuine as opposed to a fake display of happiness. Trump tends to produce these beaming smiles when he is in a convivial setting and when he doesn't feel the need to look like a leader, or when he is with people whose company he enjoys - as demonstrated by his post-election photograph with Nigel Farage.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
虽然特朗普本能地认为微笑似乎有失身份,但是他也会在一些场合放松警惕,展开笑容,亮出牙齿,笑到眼角露出皱纹。与皮笑肉不笑相比,笑容满面让人感到真诚。特朗普一般在交际以及不需要像个领导人时、或者和喜欢的人在一起时会露出热情的笑容。大选后他与奈杰尔•法拉奇的合照证明了这一点。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

5. Zipped smilelxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
抿嘴微笑
lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

川普为什么爱用这7种表情?

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

This is the smile that Trump defaults to when he is in the public eye: the mouth is closed and the teeth remain hidden. That's because the risorius muscles, which pull the corners of the mouth sideways, are much more active in this case than the zygomatic major muscles, which pull the corners of the mouth upwards and are otherwise involved in a full-blown smile. The result of this is that the zipped smile appears more guarded – and because the mouth is stretched sideways, it makes the face look slightly wider.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
嘴巴紧闭、笑不露齿是特朗普在公众面前常见的微笑。这是因为抿嘴笑时,向两侧拉伸嘴角的笑肌比向上拉伸嘴角让笑容绽放的颧大肌更活跃。抿嘴微笑看起来更慎重,且嘴向两侧拉伸使脸部看起来略宽。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

There could be several reasons why Trump is so attached to the zipped smile. One is that it makes him look less submissive. By avoiding a full-blown smile, he is able to appear circumspect, while keeping his options open - something he evidently likes to do.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
特朗普之所如此钟情于抿嘴微笑有几个原因。其中之一是这让他看起来不那么唯唯诺诺。避免笑容满面让他显得谨慎,却又给自己留有余地——这显然是他喜欢做的事。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

Trump might also be unconsciously attracted to the zipped smile because it increases the apparent width-to-height ratio of his face, which in turn makes him look more masculine and macho. Psychologists have consistently shown that men with a high facial width-to-height ratio are not only seen as tougher and more attractive, they also have higher levels of testosterone and are actually more competitive.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
特朗普也可能在不知不觉中就想要抿嘴微笑,因为这样增加了面部宽高比,让他看起来更加阳刚且有男子气概。心理学家一贯认为,面部宽高之比高的男性不仅看起来更强壮、有魅力,而且他们的睾丸素水平更高,实际竞争力更强。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

6. Puckered chinlxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
缩下颌
lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

川普为什么爱用这7种表情?

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

Some of Trump's zipped smiles are straightforward, but a large proportion of them are accompanied by a puckerechin. These are what psychologists call "blended facial expressions". The presence of this additional facial expression is quite significant because people often pull their chins in when they feel threatened - it's a way of tensing the chin in anticipation of being symbolically punched in the face. The fact that a puckered chin features in so many of Trump's zipped smiles suggests that he frequently feels threatened. Because zipped smiles are so effective at capturing people’s attention, they provide a perfect vehicle for Trump to disguise his feelings of vulnerability.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
特朗普有时只是单纯抿嘴微笑,但大部分时候,他在笑的同时还会缩下巴。心理学家称之为“复合面部表情”。这一附加的面部表情的意义很重要,人经常会在感受到威胁时缩下巴——这是预计自己会被“打脸”时绷紧下巴的一种方式。特朗普在抿嘴微笑时多次缩下巴说明他时常感受到威胁。因为抿嘴微笑非常引人注意,所以这成为特朗普掩饰其脆弱情感的最佳方式。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

7. Exaggerated mouthlxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
夸张的嘴型
lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

川普为什么爱用这7种表情?

 lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

You can't help notice the way Trump protrudes and contorts his mouth. In fact, his lips appear to have an almost prehensile quality, as if they were an extra pair of hands, reaching out from his face to manipulate the world around him. There are, however, at least two explanations we might consider. One is that Trump amplifies his lip movements because he is not completely convinced that people fully understand what he's saying. Studies have shown that when mothers are talking to their infants, they often protrude their lips and make exaggerated mouth movements in an attempt to make themselves better understood.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
你会忍不住注意特朗普撅嘴和咧嘴的样子。事实上,他的嘴唇似乎可以缠绕起来,就像是脸上长出的两只手,操纵着周围的世界。而我们至少可以从两点来看待这一表情。一是特朗普放大其嘴部动作是因为他不完全相信人们充分理解了他的话。研究表明,当妈妈和婴儿说话时,她们常常撅起嘴巴,做出夸张的嘴型以试图让婴儿更好的理解。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

It is also conceivable that Trump's exaggerated mouth movements are simply another example of a generalised strategy that involves using "supernormal stimuli" to attract attention to himself. Recent research on humans suggests that, like birds and fish, we too have an innate orienting reflex to supernormal stimuli, and that we respond more powerfully to things that are larger-than-life, whether in the realm of luxury goods, food or sex. Maybe Trump's mouth movements - together with his histrionic hand gestures and overstated opinions - are all unknowingly designed to capitalise on this human reaction.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
特朗普夸张的嘴型也可能是一种广义上的战术,即用“超常刺激”来博取人们的注意力。近日一项人类研究显示,与鸟、鱼一样,人类对于奢侈品、食物、性等方面的“超常刺激”也具有天生的定向反射,对于惹人注目的事物反应更加强烈。也许特朗普的嘴型及其做作的手势和夸张的言辞都在不知不觉间利用了人类的自然反应。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

So which facial expressions will Trump opt for during his inauguration? Will he try to present himself as a tough guy by putting on his alpha face and jutting out his chin, or will he embrace everyone with a big smile, or possibly even a zipped smile, with or without a puckered chin? Whatever happens, Trump's face is sure to provide important clues about his attitude to the occasion and what is going through his mind. Having chosen to be everyone's face, there's really nowhere for him to hide.lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
那么特朗普会在就职典礼上选择哪种表情呢?他会微扬下巴,摆出阿尔法表情以强势的形象现身,或是用灿烂的微笑面对所有人,还是缩下巴或不缩下巴的抿嘴微笑?无论发生什么,特朗普的表情一定会显示他对就职典礼的态度,以及他脑中的想法。既然选择当一个公众人物,那他真的无处可藏。lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

英文来源:卫报lxM孝感翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司
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